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Nutrient requirements of beef cattle - 8th. rev. ed. - Washington National Academy of Science 2016 - 475 p. tbls. - Animal nutrition series . - Animal nutrition series .

Contents
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
SUMMARY
1 BEEF PRODUCTION: SYSTEMS, QUALITY, AND SAFETY
Introduction
Beef Breeds
Production Systems
Food Safety
Nutritional Profiles
Taste and Tenderness
Animal Well-Being
Feed Additives and Growth Modifiers
Environmental Impact of Production Systems
References
2 ANATOMY, DIGESTION, AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION
Introduction
Mechanics and Role of Eating
Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract
The Ruminal Environment and Microbiome
Digestion Kinetics
Fermentative Processes
Ruminal pH and Acidosis
Ruminal Nitrogen Metabolism
Postruminal Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients
References
3 ENERGY TERMS AND CONCEPTS
Energy Units
Expressing Energy Values of Feeds
Summary Recommendations Regarding Energy Terms and Concepts
References
4 CARBOHYDRATES
Introduction
Non-Neutral Detergent Fiber Carbohydrates
Neutral Detergent Fiber (Fractions CB3 and CC)
Forages and Their Utilization
Fiber and Prediction of Ruminal pH
References
5 LIPIDS
Introduction
Digestion and Absorption
Digestibility and Energy Value
Essential Fatty Acids
Fat Supplementation
References
6 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS
Introduction
Metabolizable Protein System
Microbial Protein Synthesis
Urea Recycling
Synchrony of Energy and Protein
Ruminal Outflow of Intact Dietary Protein
Protein Supply to the Small Intestine
Amino Acid Absorption
Metabolic Protein Requirements
Amino Acid Requirements
Empirical and Mechanistic Levels of Solution
Summary of Recommended Adjustments for Protein
References
7 MINERALS
Introduction
Macrominerals
Microminerals
References
8 VITAMINS
Introduction
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
References
9 WATER
Introduction
Body Water Distribution
Requirements
Summary
References
10 FEED INTAKE
Introduction
Factors Affecting Feed Intake by Beef Cattle
Prediction of Feed Intake by Beef Cattle
References
11 MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATION: ENERGY AND PROTEIN
Requirements for Energy
Maintenance Requirements for Protein
References
12 GROWTH
Introduction
Energy and Protein Requirements for Growing and Finishing Cattle
Previous Plane of Nutrition Effects
Effects of Special Dietary Factors
Unique Breed Effects
Evaluation of the Energy System
References
13 REPRODUCTION
Introduction
Body Condition Score
Puberty and Heifer Development
Postpartum Interval
Pregnancy
Lactation
Bulls
Energy and Protein Requirements
Significant Changes
References
14 COMPOUNDS THAT MODIFY DIGESTION AND METABOLISM
Introduction
Additives That Alter Ruminal Fermentation
Additives That Alter Ruminal Fermentation and Other Aspects of Gastrointestinal Tract Function
Metabolic Modifiers That Affect Postabsorptive Metabolism
Summary of Recommended Adjustments for Inclusion of Modifiers
References
15 EFFECTS OF STRESS ON BEEF CATTLE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS
Overview
Dietary Energy
Dietary Protein
Minerals
Vitamins
Feed Additives
Summary
References
16 ENVIRONMENT
Background
Dietary Effects on Nutrient Excretion
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Ammonia Emissions
Hydrogen Sulfide and Reduced Sulfur
Particulate Matter and Dust
Odors/Volatile Organic Compounds
References
17 UTILIZATION OF BYPRODUCT FEEDS BY BEEF CATTLE
Availability and Overview
Corn Byproducts
Soybean Byproducts
References
18 COMPOSITION OF SELECTED FEEDS FOR BEEF CATTLE
Introduction
Data Background
Use of the Data
Grazed Forages
Effects of Processing Treatment
Minerals
References
19 MODEL EQUATIONS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES
Introduction
Requirements for Energy and Protein
Requirements for Minerals and Vitamins
Requirements for Amino Acids
Predicting Dry Matter Intake
Predicting Water Intake
Supply of Energy and Nutrients
Nutrient Balances
Feed Library
Model Comparison
Sensitivity Analyses
References
20 TABLES OF NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS
Introduction
Table for Growing and Finishing Cattle
Table for Breeding Bulls
Table for Pregnant Replacement Heifers
Table for Beef Cows
Table of Energy Reserves for Beef Cows
References
21 RESEARCH NEEDS
Introduction
General
Beef Production Systems/Beef Quality and Safety
Energy, Carbohydrates, and Lipids
Protein
Minerals, Vitamins, and Water
Feed Intake
Maintenance, Growth, Reproduction, and Stress
Compounds That Modify Digestion and Metabolism
Environment
Byproduct Feeds and Feed Composition
Computer Models for Nutrient Requirements
Reference
APPENDIXES
A A USER’S GUIDE FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE BEEF CATTLE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS MODEL
B COMMITTEE STATEMENT OF TASK
C ABBREVIATONS AND ACRONYMS
D COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHIES
E RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
INDEX

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