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Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment in sediments from the Matanza - Riachuelo river basin (Argentina) under the influence of heavy metals and organic contaminants

Colaborador(es): Biruk, Lucía N. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Cátedra de Salud Pública e Higiene Ambiental. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Morettón, Juan. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Cátedra de Salud Pública e Higiene Ambiental. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. Cátedra de Química Analítica. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Weigandt, Cristian. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. Cátedra de Química Analítica. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Etcheverry, Jimena. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI). San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina | Filippetto, Javier. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI). San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina | Magdaleno, Anahí. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Cátedra de Salud Pública e Higiene Ambiental. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ISSN: 0147-6513.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): SEDIMENTS | BATTERY OF BIOASSAYS | TOXICITY | GENOTOXICITY | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Vol.135 (2017), p.302-311, mapas, tbls.Resumen: The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of toxicity and genotoxicity in sediment sample extracts. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), together with a battery of four bioassays, was performed in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic and organic toxicants. The extracts were carried out using two inorganic solvents, two organic solvents and two extraction methodologies, making a total of five extracts. Two toxicity tests, the algal growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the root elongation inhibition of Lactuca sativa, and two genotoxicity tests, the analysis of revertants of Salmonella typhimurium and the analysis of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa, were performed. According to the chemical analysis, the acidic solution extracted more heavy metal concentrations than distilled water, and dichloromethane extracted more but fewer concentrations of PAH compounds than methanol. Shaker extracts with distilled water were non - toxic to P. subcapitata, but were toxic to L. sativa. The acidic extracts were more toxic to P. subcapitata than to L. sativa. The methanolic organic extracts were more toxic to the alga than those obtained with dichloromethane. None of these extracts resulted toxic to L. sativa. Mutagenic effects were only detected in the organic dichloromethane extracts in the presence of metabolic activation. All the inorganic and organic extracts were genotoxic to A. cepa. This study showed that the implementation of different extraction methods together with a battery of bioassays could be suitable tools for detecting toxicity and genotoxicity in sediment samples.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of chemical extraction associated with the detection of toxicity and genotoxicity in sediment sample extracts. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), together with a battery of four bioassays, was performed in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of inorganic and organic toxicants. The extracts were carried out using two inorganic solvents, two organic solvents and two extraction methodologies, making a total of five extracts. Two toxicity tests, the algal growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the root elongation inhibition of Lactuca sativa, and two genotoxicity tests, the analysis of revertants of Salmonella typhimurium and the analysis of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa, were performed. According to the chemical analysis, the acidic solution extracted more heavy metal concentrations than distilled water, and dichloromethane extracted more but fewer concentrations of PAH compounds than methanol. Shaker extracts with distilled water were non - toxic to P. subcapitata, but were toxic to L. sativa. The acidic extracts were more toxic to P. subcapitata than to L. sativa. The methanolic organic extracts were more toxic to the alga than those obtained with dichloromethane. None of these extracts resulted toxic to L. sativa. Mutagenic effects were only detected in the organic dichloromethane extracts in the presence of metabolic activation. All the inorganic and organic extracts were genotoxic to A. cepa. This study showed that the implementation of different extraction methods together with a battery of bioassays could be suitable tools for detecting toxicity and genotoxicity in sediment samples.

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