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Biomass decomposition and phosphorus release from residues of cover crops under no - tillage

Colaborador(es): Varela, María Florencia. Universidad de la Pampa. Facultad de Agronomía. La Pampa, Argentina | Barraco, Mirian. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA). Centro Regional Buenos Aires Norte. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria General Villegas (EEA General Villegas). Buenos Aires, Argentina | Gili, Adriana. Universidad de la Pampa. Facultad de Agronomía. La Pampa, Argentina | Taboada, Miguel Angel. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA). Instituto de Suelos. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Rubio, Gerardo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Instituto de Investigaciones en Biociencias Agrícolas y Ambientales (INBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET – Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Investigaciones en Biociencias Agrícolas y Ambientales (INBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ISSN: 0002-1962.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): BIOMASS | COVER CROPS | DECOMPOSITION | EROSION CONTROL | MODELS | NO-TILLAGE | OATS | PHOSPHORUS | RYE | AVENA SATIVA | LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM | SECALE CEREALE | AVENA | POACEAE | POALES | COMMELINIDS | MONOCOTYLEDONS | ANGIOSPERMS | SPERMATOPHYTA | EUKARYOTES | SECALE | SYSTEMS | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Agronomy journal Vol.109, no.1 (2017), p.317-326, tbls., grafs.Resumen: Under no - tillage fi eld conditions, cover crop (CC) residues remain on the soil surface and decompose at a slow rate. We used three CC species (oat, Avena sativa L.; rye, Secale cereale L.; and ryegrass, Lolium multifl orum L.) to evaluate the residue biomass decomposition and P pools release–total phosphorus (Pt), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), and organic phosphorus (Po)–under no - tillage field conditions. The dynamics of biomass and P in CC residues was evaluated through the litterbag method during two annual periods in a long - term field experiment. Exponential decay models were fi tted to each variable. Biomass decomposition and P release followed asymptotic decay models for the less labile residues (oat and rye) and single exponential decay models for the more labile ryegrass residues. Biomass and Pt showed rather equivalent dynamics, but Pi release was faster (Pi rates were three times higher and Pi plateaus were two to four times lower than biomass values). The release of Pt from CC residues reached agronomically signifi cant quantities (2–16 kg ha–1) during the cash crop growing season and most of this Pt was released as Pi (53–100%). A positive tradeoff was observed between the release of Pi, potentially available for subsequent crop, and the residue biomass remaining over the soil. Th is means that Pi was released from residues, but enough biomass remained on the soil surface for erosion control. These results can be incorporated into predictive models on the contribution of CC residues to soil coverage and P nutrition of subsequent crops.
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Under no - tillage fi eld conditions, cover crop (CC) residues remain on the soil surface and decompose at a slow rate. We used three CC species (oat, Avena sativa L.; rye, Secale cereale L.; and ryegrass, Lolium multifl orum L.) to evaluate the residue biomass decomposition and P pools release–total phosphorus (Pt), inorganic phosphorus (Pi), and organic phosphorus (Po)–under no - tillage field conditions. The dynamics of biomass and P in CC residues was evaluated through the litterbag method during two annual periods in a long - term field experiment. Exponential decay models were fi tted to each variable. Biomass decomposition and P release followed asymptotic decay models for the less labile residues (oat and rye) and single exponential decay models for the more labile ryegrass residues. Biomass and Pt showed rather equivalent dynamics, but Pi release was faster (Pi rates were three times higher and Pi plateaus were two to four times lower than biomass values). The release of Pt from CC residues reached agronomically signifi cant quantities (2–16 kg ha–1) during the cash crop growing season and most of this Pt was released as Pi (53–100%). A positive tradeoff was observed between the release of Pi, potentially available for subsequent crop, and the residue biomass remaining over the soil. Th is means that Pi was released from residues, but enough biomass remained on the soil surface for erosion control. These results can be incorporated into predictive models on the contribution of CC residues to soil coverage and P nutrition of subsequent crops.

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