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Electromagnetic soundings to detect groundwater contamination produced by intensive livestock farming

Colaborador(es): Sainato, Claudia Mabel. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Losinno, Beatriz Norma. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Márquez Molina, John Jairo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Espada, Ramiro Augusto. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ISSN: 0926-9851.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): AGRICULTURE | ANIMALS | CHEMICAL ANALYSIS | CHLORINE COMPOUNDS | CONTAMINATION | ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION | FERTILIZERS | GROUNDWATER | MANURES | NITRATES SOILS | SULFUR COMPOUNDS | CONDUCTIVITY METERS | ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTIONS (EMI) | ELECTROMAGNETIC SOUNDINGS | GROUNDWATER ANALYSIS | GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION | QUADRATURE COMPONENTS | SOIL ORGANIC MATTERS | GROUNDWATER POLLUTION | LEACHATE CONTAMINATION | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Journal of Applied Geophysics Vol.154 (2018), p.159-166, fot., grafs., tbls.Resumen: Feedlots, a set of corrals where livestock is gathered to be fattened for market, are widely spreading in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. However, the impact ofmanure as a consequence of this activity on soil organic matter mineralisation and groundwater is still to be explored. Although previous studies have described contamination in sandy soil environments, there is still little evidence on the effect of leachates in soils with a finer texture. The objective of this work was to assess contamination at a pen and its surroundings, by means of the modelling of electromagnetic induction (EMI) soundings carried out annually during two years of feedlot activity. A multifrequency conductivity meter was used for frequencies from 2 kHz to 16 kHz. For the 1D inversion of experimental data, the quadrature component of the secondary H - field normalized by the primary field expressed in ppm was used. The models of each measurement site were joined and 2D sections were obtained along transects in the pen and its surroundings. Groundwater chemical analysis was also performed annually during four years of feedlot activity. With soil depth, model resistivity decreased, reaching values between 6 and 8 omega m at the unsaturated and the saturated zone. This decline indicated that the leachates from animal manure had increased soil salinity. In the second year of soundings, the layers below the pen showed an important decrease of resistivity. On the other hand, variation of the concentration of nitrates, chlorides and sulfates remained the same both in the phreatic and in the deep well along the four years of groundwater analysis. The concentration of sulfates and nitrates showed a maximum value in the second and in the third year after the beginning of the animal confinement activity in the pen. The following year, with the increase of precipitations, these concentrations decreased. Thus, the modelling of electromagnetic soundings proved to be a useful tool to determine the effect of leachate contamination in feedlot pens.
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Feedlots, a set of corrals where livestock is gathered to be fattened for market, are widely spreading in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. However, the impact ofmanure as a consequence of this activity on soil organic matter mineralisation and groundwater is still to be explored. Although previous studies have described contamination in sandy soil environments, there is still little evidence on the effect of leachates in soils with a finer texture. The objective of this work was to assess contamination at a pen and its surroundings, by means of the modelling of electromagnetic induction (EMI) soundings carried out annually during two years of feedlot activity. A multifrequency conductivity meter was used for frequencies from 2 kHz to 16 kHz. For the 1D inversion of experimental data, the quadrature component of the secondary H - field normalized by the primary field expressed in ppm was used. The models of each measurement site were joined and 2D sections were obtained along transects in the pen and its surroundings. Groundwater chemical analysis was also performed annually during four years of feedlot activity. With soil depth, model resistivity decreased, reaching values between 6 and 8 omega m at the unsaturated and the saturated zone. This decline indicated that the leachates from animal manure had increased soil salinity. In the second year of soundings, the layers below the pen showed an important decrease of resistivity. On the other hand, variation of the concentration of nitrates, chlorides and sulfates remained the same both in the phreatic and in the deep well along the four years of groundwater analysis. The concentration of sulfates and nitrates showed a maximum value in the second and in the third year after the beginning of the animal confinement activity in the pen. The following year, with the increase of precipitations, these concentrations decreased. Thus, the modelling of electromagnetic soundings proved to be a useful tool to determine the effect of leachate contamination in feedlot pens.

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