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Exploring karyotype diversity of Argentinian Guaraní maize landraces : relationship among South American maize

Colaborador(es): Realini, María Florencia. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Laboratorio de Citogenética y Evolución (LaCyE). Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución. Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina | Poggio, Lidia. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Laboratorio de Citogenética y Evolución (LaCyE). Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución. Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina | Cámara Hernández, Julián A. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Cátedra de Botánica Agrícola. Buenos Aires, Argentina | González, Graciela Esther. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Laboratorio de Citogenética y Evolución (LaCyE). Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución. Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA). Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ISSN: 1932-6203.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): AUTOSOME | CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS | GERMPLASM | HUMAN | HUMAN CELL | KARYOTYPE | LANDRACE | MAIZE | NONHUMAN | SEQUENCE ANALYSIS | SOUTH AMERICA | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Plos One Vol.13, no.6 (2018), e0198398, 18 p., grafs., tbls., fot.Resumen: In Argentina there are two different centers of maize diversity, the Northeastern (NEA) and the Northwestern (NWA) regions of the country. In NEA, morphological studies identified 15 landraces cultivated by the Guaraní communities in Misiones Province. In the present study we analyzed the karyotype diversity of 20 populations of Guaraní maize landraces through classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Our results demonstrate significant intra and inter - populational variation in the percentage, number, size, chromosome position and frequencies of the heterochromatic blocks, which are called knobs. Knob sequence analysis (180 - bp and TR-1) did not show significant differences among Guaraní populations. B chromosomes were not detected, and abnormal 10 (AB10) chromosomes were found with low frequency (0.1f 0.40) in six populations. Our results allowed karyotypic characterization of each analyzed population, defining for the first time the chromosomal constitution of maize germplasm from NEA. The multivariate analysis (PCoA and UPGMA) of karyotype parameters allowed the distinction between two populations groups: the Popcorn and the Floury maize populations. These results are in agreement with previously published microsatellite and morphological/phenological studies. Finally, we compared our karyotype results with those previously reported for NWA and Central Region of South America maize. Our data suggest that there are important differences between maize from NEA and NWA at the karyotype level, supporting the hypothesis that there are two pathways of input of South America maize. Our results also confirm the existence of two centers of diversification of Argentinian native maize, NWA and NEA. This work contributes new knowledge about maize diversity, which is relevant for future plans to improve commercial maize, and for conservation of agrobiodiversity.
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In Argentina there are two different centers of maize diversity, the Northeastern (NEA) and the Northwestern (NWA) regions of the country. In NEA, morphological studies identified 15 landraces cultivated by the Guaraní communities in Misiones Province. In the present study we analyzed the karyotype diversity of 20 populations of Guaraní maize landraces through classical and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Our results demonstrate significant intra and inter - populational variation in the percentage, number, size, chromosome position and frequencies of the heterochromatic blocks, which are called knobs. Knob sequence analysis (180 - bp and TR-1) did not show significant differences among Guaraní populations. B chromosomes were not detected, and abnormal 10 (AB10) chromosomes were found with low frequency (0.1f 0.40) in six populations. Our results allowed karyotypic characterization of each analyzed population, defining for the first time the chromosomal constitution of maize germplasm from NEA. The multivariate analysis (PCoA and UPGMA) of karyotype parameters allowed the distinction between two populations groups: the Popcorn and the Floury maize populations. These results are in agreement with previously published microsatellite and morphological/phenological studies. Finally, we compared our karyotype results with those previously reported for NWA and Central Region of South America maize. Our data suggest that there are important differences between maize from NEA and NWA at the karyotype level, supporting the hypothesis that there are two pathways of input of South America maize. Our results also confirm the existence of two centers of diversification of Argentinian native maize, NWA and NEA. This work contributes new knowledge about maize diversity, which is relevant for future plans to improve commercial maize, and for conservation of agrobiodiversity.

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