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Genetic and environmental effects on crop development determining adaptation and yield

Colaborador(es): Slafer, Gustavo Ariel. ICREA - AGROTECNIO - Spain. University of Lleida. Department of Crop and Forest Sciences. Lleida, Spain | Kantolic, Adriana Graciela. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Appendino, María Laura. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Tranquilli, Gabriela Edith. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA). Recursos Naturales. Instituto de Recursos Biológicos. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Miralles, Daniel Julio. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura (IFEVA). Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET – Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura (IFEVA). Buenos Aires, Argentina | Savin, Roxana. ICREA - AGROTECNIO - Spain. University of Lleida. Department of Crop and Forest Sciences. Lleida, Spain.
Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): PHENOLOGY | WHEAT | SOYBEAN | VERNALIZATION | PHOTOPERIOD | YIELD | DEVELOPMENT | ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL | GENETIC CONTROL | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Crop Physiology cap.12 (2015), p.285-319, grafs., tbls., fot.Resumen: Crop development is a sequence of phenological events controlled by the genetic background and influenced by external factors, which determines changes in the morphology and/or function of organs (Landsberg, 1977). Although development is a continuous process, the ontogeny of a crop is frequently divided into discrete periods, for instance ‘vegetative’, ‘reproductive’ and ‘grain - filling’ phases (Slafer, 2012). Patterns of phenological development largely determine the adaptation of a crop to a certain range of environments. For example, genetic improvement in grain yield of wheat has been associated with shorter time from sowing to anthesis in Mediterranean environments of western Australia (Siddique et al., 1989), whereas no consistent trends in phenology were found where drought is present but not necessarily terminal, including environments of Argentina, Canada and the USA (Slafer and Andrade, 1989, 1993; Slafer et al., 1994a) (Fig. 12.1). Even in agricultural lands of the Mediterranean Basin where wheat has been grown for many centuries, breeding during the last century did not clearly change phenological patterns (Acreche et al., 2008). This chapter focuses on two major morphologically and hysiologically contrasting grain crops: wheat and soybean. For both species, we have an advanced understanding of development and physiology in general. Wheat is a determinate, long-day grass of temperate origin, which is responsive to vernalization. Soybean is a typically indeterminate (but with determinate intermediate variants), short-day grain legume of tropical origin, which is insensitive to vernalization. Comparisons with other species are used to highlight the similarities and differences. The aims of this chapter are to outline the developmental characteristics of grain crops and the links between phenology and yield, to revise the mechanisms of environmental and genetic control of development and to explore the possibilities of improving crop adaptation and yield potential through the fine-tuning of developmental patterns.
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Crop development is a sequence of phenological events controlled by the genetic background and influenced by external factors, which determines changes in the morphology and/or
function of organs (Landsberg, 1977).
Although development is a continuous process, the ontogeny of a crop is frequently divided into discrete periods, for instance ‘vegetative’, ‘reproductive’ and ‘grain - filling’ phases (Slafer, 2012).
Patterns of phenological development largely determine the adaptation of a crop to a certain range of environments. For example, genetic improvement in grain yield of wheat has been
associated with shorter time from sowing to anthesis in Mediterranean environments of western Australia (Siddique et al., 1989), whereas no consistent trends in phenology were found where drought is present but not necessarily terminal, including environments of Argentina, Canada and the USA (Slafer and Andrade, 1989, 1993; Slafer et al., 1994a)
(Fig. 12.1). Even in agricultural lands of the Mediterranean Basin where wheat has been grown for many centuries, breeding during the last century did not clearly change phenological patterns (Acreche et al., 2008).
This chapter focuses on two major morphologically and hysiologically contrasting grain crops: wheat and soybean. For both species, we have an advanced understanding of development and physiology in general. Wheat is a determinate,
long-day grass of temperate origin, which is responsive to vernalization. Soybean is a typically indeterminate (but with determinate intermediate variants), short-day grain legume of tropical origin, which is insensitive to vernalization. Comparisons
with other species are used to highlight the similarities and differences. The aims of this chapter are to outline the developmental characteristics of grain crops and the links between phenology and yield, to revise the mechanisms
of environmental and genetic control of development and to explore the possibilities of improving crop adaptation and yield potential through the fine-tuning of developmental patterns.

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