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Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems : patterns, mechanisms, and interactions with climate change

Colaborador(es): Ballaré, Carlos Luis | Caldwell, Martyn M | Flint, Stephan D | Robinson, Sharon A | Bornman, Janet F.
ISSN: 1474-905X.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): ANIMAL | CLIMATE CHANGE | ECOSYSTEM | HUMAN | PLANT | RADIATION EXPOSURE | RADIATION MONITORING | SOLAR ENERGY | ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION | ANIMALS | HUMANS | PLANTS | ULTRAVIOLET RAYS | ARTHROPODA | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR. En: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences vol.10, no.2 (2011), p.226-241Resumen: Ultraviolet radiation [UV] is a minor fraction of the solar spectrum reaching the ground surface. In this assessment we summarize the results of previous work on the effects of the UV-B component [280-315 nm] on terrestrial ecosystems, and draw attention to important knowledge gaps in our understanding of the interactive effects of UV radiation and climate change. We highlight the following points: [i] The effects of UV-B on the growth of terrestrial plants are relatively small and, because the Montreal Protocol has been successful in limiting ozone depletion, the reduction in plant growth caused by increased UV-B radiation in areas affected by ozone decline since 1980 is unlikely to have exceeded 6 percent. [ii] Solar UV-B radiation has large direct and indirect [plant-mediated] effects on canopy arthropods and microorganisms. Therefore, trophic interactions [herbivory, decomposition] in terrestrial ecosystems appear to be sensitive to variations in UV-B irradiance. [iii] Future variations in UV radiation resulting from changes in climate and land-use may have more important consequences on terrestrial ecosystems than the changes in UV caused by ozone depletion. This is because the resulting changes in UV radiation may affect a greater range of ecosystems, and will not be restricted solely to the UV-B component. [iv] Several ecosystem processes that are not particularly sensitive to UV-B radiation can be strongly affected by UV-A [315-400 nm] radiation. One example is the physical degradation of plant litter. Increased photodegradation [in response to reduced cloudiness or canopy cover] will lead to increased carbon release to the atmosphere via direct and indirect mechanisms.
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Ultraviolet radiation [UV] is a minor fraction of the solar spectrum reaching the ground surface. In this assessment we summarize the results of previous work on the effects of the UV-B component [280-315 nm] on terrestrial ecosystems, and draw attention to important knowledge gaps in our understanding of the interactive effects of UV radiation and climate change. We highlight the following points: [i] The effects of UV-B on the growth of terrestrial plants are relatively small and, because the Montreal Protocol has been successful in limiting ozone depletion, the reduction in plant growth caused by increased UV-B radiation in areas affected by ozone decline since 1980 is unlikely to have exceeded 6 percent. [ii] Solar UV-B radiation has large direct and indirect [plant-mediated] effects on canopy arthropods and microorganisms. Therefore, trophic interactions [herbivory, decomposition] in terrestrial ecosystems appear to be sensitive to variations in UV-B irradiance. [iii] Future variations in UV radiation resulting from changes in climate and land-use may have more important consequences on terrestrial ecosystems than the changes in UV caused by ozone depletion. This is because the resulting changes in UV radiation may affect a greater range of ecosystems, and will not be restricted solely to the UV-B component. [iv] Several ecosystem processes that are not particularly sensitive to UV-B radiation can be strongly affected by UV-A [315-400 nm] radiation. One example is the physical degradation of plant litter. Increased photodegradation [in response to reduced cloudiness or canopy cover] will lead to increased carbon release to the atmosphere via direct and indirect mechanisms.

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