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Tillage and traffic effects [planters and tractors] on soil compaction and soybean [Glycine max L.] yields in Argentinean pampas

Colaborador(es): Botta, Guido Fernando | Tolón Becerra, Alfredo | Lastra Bravo, X. B | Tourn, Mario César.
ISSN: 0167-1987.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): DEEP TILLAGE | DIRECT SOWING | IMPLANTATION CONDITIONS | SOIL COVER | AXLE LOADS | COMMONLY USED | CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT | CONTROL PROBLEMS | CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE | DIRECT DRILLING | DIRECT-DRILL | GRAIN YIELD | GROUND PRESSURE | HARVEST OPERATIONS | HIGH AXLE LOADS | IMPLANTATION CONDITIONS | MEAN VALUES | ROOT DISEASE | ROOT GROWTH | SOIL COMPACTION | SOIL CONDITIONS | SOIL CONE INDEX | TRAFFIC EFFECT | TRAFFIC INTENSITY | WET SOIL | AXLES | COMPACTION | CULTIVATION | DRILLING | GRAIN [AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT] | LOADS [FORCES] | NITROGEN FIXATION | SOIL MECHANICS | TRACTORS [AGRICULTURAL] | TRACTORS [TRUCK] | WEED CONTROL | WHEELS | SOILS | GROWING SEASON | LOADING | MACHINERY | PLOWING | SOIL COVER | SOYBEAN | SUBSOIL | TOPSOIL | TRAFFIC CONGESTION | WEED CONTROL | YIELD RESPONSE | ARGENTINA | PAMPAS | GLYCINE MAX | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR. En: Soil and Tillage Research vol.110, no.1, (2010), p.167-174Resumen: Direct drilling systems usually have lower traffic intensities than those using conventional tillage, but despite this, after several years of continuous direct drilling yields tend to decrease. This could be the result of increased weed control problems and root diseases as well as a gradual increase in soil compaction due to agricultural traffic. The draft required, soil cone index, root growth, soybean [Glycine max L.] yield and traffic [planters and tractors] compaction over the subsequent three growing seasons were measured. This initially high level of soil compaction in some direct sowing systems might suggest that the impact of subsequent traffic would be minimal, but data have not been consistent. Soil compaction is caused by the high traffic intensity and weight of tractor and seeding machines and combines in harvest operations, especially when these operations are carried out on wet soil or with high ground pressure. The techniques commonly used for control and management of topsoil and subsoil compaction are: subsoiling and chiseling and axle load reduction. Outlined hypothesis was: Traffic with high axle load equipment increases soil compaction and decreases soybean yield. This article quantifies: [a] the effects of subsoiling and chisel plowing were carried out at 350 and 280mm depth, respectively, on soil compacted under 12 years of direct drill systems and [b] traffic effect on this soil conditions of two equipment for direct sowing [planters and tractors] on soybean yields [G. max L.] with two different loads: light equip [LE] and heavy equip [HE]. The study showed that: In topsoil for three growing season, traffic with HE [185kN] caused mean values of CI of 2178, 1506 and 1406kPa for direct sowing, chiseled and subsoiled soil, respectively, while for the LE [127kN] the values were of 1855, 1210 and 1206kPa, respectively. Also in the subsoil traffic with HE caused higher CI values than the LE in all treatments. The CI mean values of the HE traffic were: 2465, 1920 and 1854kPa for direct sowing, chiseled and subsoiled soil, respectively, while the LE traffic produced 2298, 1639 and 1637kPa, respectively. For three growing seasons the HE traffic in soil under direct sowing reduces soybean grain yields close to 460kgha -1, while for the LE was 250kgha -1. When the traffic was made with LE on subsoiled soil there is an effective increase in soybean grain yields of about 330kgha -1.
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Direct drilling systems usually have lower traffic intensities than those using conventional tillage, but despite this, after several years of continuous direct drilling yields tend to decrease. This could be the result of increased weed control problems and root diseases as well as a gradual increase in soil compaction due to agricultural traffic. The draft required, soil cone index, root growth, soybean [Glycine max L.] yield and traffic [planters and tractors] compaction over the subsequent three growing seasons were measured. This initially high level of soil compaction in some direct sowing systems might suggest that the impact of subsequent traffic would be minimal, but data have not been consistent. Soil compaction is caused by the high traffic intensity and weight of tractor and seeding machines and combines in harvest operations, especially when these operations are carried out on wet soil or with high ground pressure. The techniques commonly used for control and management of topsoil and subsoil compaction are: subsoiling and chiseling and axle load reduction. Outlined hypothesis was: Traffic with high axle load equipment increases soil compaction and decreases soybean yield. This article quantifies: [a] the effects of subsoiling and chisel plowing were carried out at 350 and 280mm depth, respectively, on soil compacted under 12 years of direct drill systems and [b] traffic effect on this soil conditions of two equipment for direct sowing [planters and tractors] on soybean yields [G. max L.] with two different loads: light equip [LE] and heavy equip [HE]. The study showed that: In topsoil for three growing season, traffic with HE [185kN] caused mean values of CI of 2178, 1506 and 1406kPa for direct sowing, chiseled and subsoiled soil, respectively, while for the LE [127kN] the values were of 1855, 1210 and 1206kPa, respectively. Also in the subsoil traffic with HE caused higher CI values than the LE in all treatments. The CI mean values of the HE traffic were: 2465, 1920 and 1854kPa for direct sowing, chiseled and subsoiled soil, respectively, while the LE traffic produced 2298, 1639 and 1637kPa, respectively. For three growing seasons the HE traffic in soil under direct sowing reduces soybean grain yields close to 460kgha -1, while for the LE was 250kgha -1. When the traffic was made with LE on subsoiled soil there is an effective increase in soybean grain yields of about 330kgha -1.

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