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Inter - plant competition for resources in maize crops grown under contrasting nitrogen supply and density : variability in plant and ear growth

Por: Rossini, María de los Angeles.
Colaborador(es): Maddonni, Gustavo Angel | Otegui, María Elena.
ISSN: 0378-4290.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): BIOMASS PARTITION | EAR GROWTH | INTER-PLANT COMPETITION | MAIZE | NITROGEN | PLANT GROWTH | PLANT POPULATION DENSITY | ZEA MAYS L | BIOMASS ALLOCATION | COMPETITION [ECOLOGY] | COMPUTER SIMULATION | CULTIVATION | FERTILIZER APPLICATION | GENOTYPE | GROWTH RATE | HYBRID | IRRIGATION | LEAF AREA | PHOSPHORUS | PLANT COMMUNITY | POPULATION DENSITY | POTASSIUM | RADIATION BALANCE | TOLERANCE | ZEA MAYS | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR. En: Field Crops Research vol.121, no.3 (2011) p.373-380Resumen: Increased plant population density in irrigated and fertilized maize crops enhances plant-to-plant variability since early vegetative stages, because the most suppressed individuals of the stand intercept less radiation per unit leaf area than the dominant ones [i.e. a size-asymmetric competition for light]. Contrarily, a size-symmetric competition has been proposed for the acquisition of soil resources in a plant community [e.g. N capture per unit root length is similar among plants of different size]. Hence, N fertilization effect on the variability of maize plants would depend on the initial plant-to-plant variability or on that promoted by a high plant population density. Two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowding [tolerant AX820 and intolerant AX877] were cultivated under different combinations of stand densities [6, 9 and 12plantsm-2] and N supplies [0 and 200kgNha-1] without water restrictions. Variability in plant growth rate among plants was computed along the cycle, especially after fertilizer was applied [i.e. the early reproductive period; PGRER] and during the critical period around silking [PGRCP]. Plant-to-plant variability in biomass partitioning to the ear [partition index; PI], ear growth rate during the critical period [EGRCP] and kernel number per plant [KNP] was also established. Reduced N supply increased the coefficient of variation [CV] of PGRER, PGRCP, EGRCP and KNP [0.05 less than P less than 0.10]. The CVs of PGRCP, PI, EGRCP and KNP augmented [0.001 less than P less than 0.10] at the highest stand density. The CVs of PGRER, PGRCP, PI and KNP were larger for hybrid AX877 than for hybrid AX820 [0.001 less than P less than 0.10]. N fertilization smoothed the initial plant-to-plant variability, but the extent of this benefit in a maize crop is genotype dependent; it was much larger in the hybrid tolerant to crowding stress than in the intolerant one. For the latter, the variability held during the critical period around silking and produced a high CV of KNP.
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Increased plant population density in irrigated and fertilized maize crops enhances plant-to-plant variability since early vegetative stages, because the most suppressed individuals of the stand intercept less radiation per unit leaf area than the dominant ones [i.e. a size-asymmetric competition for light]. Contrarily, a size-symmetric competition has been proposed for the acquisition of soil resources in a plant community [e.g. N capture per unit root length is similar among plants of different size]. Hence, N fertilization effect on the variability of maize plants would depend on the initial plant-to-plant variability or on that promoted by a high plant population density. Two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerance to crowding [tolerant AX820 and intolerant AX877] were cultivated under different combinations of stand densities [6, 9 and 12plantsm-2] and N supplies [0 and 200kgNha-1] without water restrictions. Variability in plant growth rate among plants was computed along the cycle, especially after fertilizer was applied [i.e. the early reproductive period; PGRER] and during the critical period around silking [PGRCP]. Plant-to-plant variability in biomass partitioning to the ear [partition index; PI], ear growth rate during the critical period [EGRCP] and kernel number per plant [KNP] was also established. Reduced N supply increased the coefficient of variation [CV] of PGRER, PGRCP, EGRCP and KNP [0.05 less than P less than 0.10]. The CVs of PGRCP, PI, EGRCP and KNP augmented [0.001 less than P less than 0.10] at the highest stand density. The CVs of PGRER, PGRCP, PI and KNP were larger for hybrid AX877 than for hybrid AX820 [0.001 less than P less than 0.10]. N fertilization smoothed the initial plant-to-plant variability, but the extent of this benefit in a maize crop is genotype dependent; it was much larger in the hybrid tolerant to crowding stress than in the intolerant one. For the latter, the variability held during the critical period around silking and produced a high CV of KNP.

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