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Epigeal arthropod communities in intensively farmed landscapes : Effects of land use mosaics, neighbourhood heterogeneity, and field position

Por: Molina, G. A. R.
Colaborador(es): Poggio, S. L | Ghersa, C. M.
ISSN: 0167-8809.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM | ARGENTINA | ARTHROPOD | ARTHROPODA | BIODIVERSITY | CROPPING PRACTICE | ECOSYSTEM SERVICE | FIELD | HEXAPODA | HOMOGENEITY | INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE | LANDSCAPE HOMOGENISATION | LANDSCAPE PLANNING | NEIGHBOURING EFFECTS | ORGANIC FARMING | PAMPAS | PEST SPECIES | REFUGE | ROLLING PAMPAS | SPATIAL SCALE | SPECIES DIVERSITY | SPECIES RICHNESS | SPILLOVER | TROPHIC CONTROL | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR. En: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment Vol. 192 (2014) 135-143Resumen: Trophic guilds of epigeal arthropods regulating insect pest populations may be affected by factors acting across spatial scales. Although the influence of landscape factors associated with farming effects on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention in the last decades, most research was carried out in fine-grain landscapes by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. Here, we aimed at identifying the role of fencerows and crop heterogeneity in defining arthropod diversity in intensively farmed, coarse-grain landscapes. Hence, we developed a multi-scale heterogeneity approach based on fitting linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of three spatial scales [local, neighbouring crop types, and landscape] on arthropod diversity. Mixed models were fitted to arthropod data obtained by pitfall trap samplings in 22 field pairs. Field position was a major determinant of arthropod species diversity at local scale, due to the contrasting disturbance regimes of fencerows and adjoining field edges. Fence density at landscape scale contributed to retain diverse arthropod assemblages in farmland mosaics by supplying habitats and refuges. In addition, extended fence network may function as corridors for dispersal, increasing connectivity between dissimilar habitats. Fence habitats, as well as their density in the landscapes, enhance both richness and abundance of beneficial arthropods. Our findings indicate that the overall arthropod diversity was benefited by landscape complexity, being the presence and density of fencerows key landscape attributes. Contrasting disturbance regimes at different field positions emerged as a major driver modulating arthropod species diversity in intensively managed farmland mosaics. Non-cropped habitats associated with fencerows and field margins play key ecological functions that are of vital importance for providing ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems. Complex landscapes may help to conserve overall plant diversity in agro-ecosystems, as well as the spillover of arthropod species from fencerows towards crop fields. Even in heavily intensified landscapes, where crop diversity is the main source of heterogeneity, promoting measures intended for both restoring and managing fencerow and non-cropped habitats through landscape planning will contribute to maintain arthropod richness [almost 70 percent of total richness] across the entire landscape.
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Trophic guilds of epigeal arthropods regulating insect pest populations may be affected by factors acting across spatial scales. Although the influence of landscape factors associated with farming effects on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention in the last decades, most research was carried out in fine-grain landscapes by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. Here, we aimed at identifying the role of fencerows and crop heterogeneity in defining arthropod diversity in intensively farmed, coarse-grain landscapes. Hence, we developed a multi-scale heterogeneity approach based on fitting linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of three spatial scales [local, neighbouring crop types, and landscape] on arthropod diversity. Mixed models were fitted to arthropod data obtained by pitfall trap samplings in 22 field pairs. Field position was a major determinant of arthropod species diversity at local scale, due to the contrasting disturbance regimes of fencerows and adjoining field edges. Fence density at landscape scale contributed to retain diverse arthropod assemblages in farmland mosaics by supplying habitats and refuges. In addition, extended fence network may function as corridors for dispersal, increasing connectivity between dissimilar habitats. Fence habitats, as well as their density in the landscapes, enhance both richness and abundance of beneficial arthropods. Our findings indicate that the overall arthropod diversity was benefited by landscape complexity, being the presence and density of fencerows key landscape attributes. Contrasting disturbance regimes at different field positions emerged as a major driver modulating arthropod species diversity in intensively managed farmland mosaics. Non-cropped habitats associated with fencerows and field margins play key ecological functions that are of vital importance for providing ecosystem services in agro-ecosystems. Complex landscapes may help to conserve overall plant diversity in agro-ecosystems, as well as the spillover of arthropod species from fencerows towards crop fields. Even in heavily intensified landscapes, where crop diversity is the main source of heterogeneity, promoting measures intended for both restoring and managing fencerow and non-cropped habitats through landscape planning will contribute to maintain arthropod richness [almost 70 percent of total richness] across the entire landscape.

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