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Priming of soil organic carbon decomposition induced by corn compared to soybean crops

Colaborador(es): Mazzilli, Sebastián R | Kemanian, Armen R | Ernst, Oswaldo R | Jackson, Robert B | Piñeiro, Gervasio.
ISSN: 0038-0717.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): AGRICULTURAL WASTES | BIODEGRADATION | BIOGEOCHEMISTRY | BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS | CARBON FLUX | CHEMICAL COMPOSITION | COMPARATIVE STUDY | CORN | CROP RESIDUE | CROPS | DECOMPOSITION | HUMIFICATION | HUMIFICATION RATE | IN-FIELD | MAIZE | MICROBIAL ACTIVITY | ORGANIC COMPOUNDS | PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER | PRIMING EFFECT IN FIELD CONDITIONS | QUALITY CONTROL | SOIL CARBON | SOIL ORGANIC CARBON | SOIL ORGANIC CARBON DECOMPOSITION | SOIL ORGANIC MATTER | SOIL RESPIRATION | SOILS | SOYBEAN | STABILIZATION | TOPSOIL | ZERO TILLAGE | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Soil Biology and Biochemistry vol.75 (2014), p.273-281Resumen: The rate of soil organic carbon [CS] loss via microbial respiration [decomposition rate k, y-1], and the rate of stabilization of vegetation inputs [CV] into CS [humification rate h, y-1] are usually considered independent of CV. However, short-term laboratory studies suggest that the quality and quantity of CV controls k, which is often referred to as a priming effect. We investigated how the chemical composition of different residues, [corn and soybean] controls k and h under field conditions in a no-till ecosystem. Using CV-driven shifts in ?13C, we estimated changes in carbon [C] stocks, k and h of both the labile particulate organic matter fraction [CPOM] and the stabilized mineral associated organic matter fraction [CMAOM]. After two years of high C inputs [corn: 4.4Mgha-1y-1 aboveground and C:N=78; soybean: 3.5Mgha-1y-1, C:N=17], we found no changes in CPOM and CMAOM stocks in the top 5-cm of soil or in deeper layers. However, CMAOM in corn had higher k [0.06y-1] and C output fluxes [0.67Mgha-1y-1] than in soybean [0.03y-1 and 0.32Mgha-1y-1], but similar rates and fluxes in CPOM in the top 5-cm of soil. In addition, while C inputs to CPOM were also similar for both crops, C inputs from CV to CMAOM were higher in corn [0.51Mgha-1y-1] than in soybean [0.19Mgha-1y-1]. Overall, corn plots had higher k and C inputs into CMAOM and therefore higher C cycling in this fraction. Our data suggests that the type of crop residue strongly influences C cycling in the topsoil of no-till cropping systems by affecting both the stabilization and the decomposition of soil organic matter.
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The rate of soil organic carbon [CS] loss via microbial respiration [decomposition rate k, y-1], and the rate of stabilization of vegetation inputs [CV] into CS [humification rate h, y-1] are usually considered independent of CV. However, short-term laboratory studies suggest that the quality and quantity of CV controls k, which is often referred to as a priming effect. We investigated how the chemical composition of different residues, [corn and soybean] controls k and h under field conditions in a no-till ecosystem. Using CV-driven shifts in ?13C, we estimated changes in carbon [C] stocks, k and h of both the labile particulate organic matter fraction [CPOM] and the stabilized mineral associated organic matter fraction [CMAOM]. After two years of high C inputs [corn: 4.4Mgha-1y-1 aboveground and C:N=78; soybean: 3.5Mgha-1y-1, C:N=17], we found no changes in CPOM and CMAOM stocks in the top 5-cm of soil or in deeper layers. However, CMAOM in corn had higher k [0.06y-1] and C output fluxes [0.67Mgha-1y-1] than in soybean [0.03y-1 and 0.32Mgha-1y-1], but similar rates and fluxes in CPOM in the top 5-cm of soil. In addition, while C inputs to CPOM were also similar for both crops, C inputs from CV to CMAOM were higher in corn [0.51Mgha-1y-1] than in soybean [0.19Mgha-1y-1]. Overall, corn plots had higher k and C inputs into CMAOM and therefore higher C cycling in this fraction. Our data suggests that the type of crop residue strongly influences C cycling in the topsoil of no-till cropping systems by affecting both the stabilization and the decomposition of soil organic matter.

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