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Cover crop effects on soybean residue decomposition and P release in no-tillage systems of Argentina

Colaborador(es): Varela, María Florencia | Scianca, Carlos María | Taboada, Miguel Angel | Rubio, Gerardo.
ISSN: 0167-1987.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): AGRICULTURAL WASTES | AMINO ACIDS | ARGENTINA | BIOMASS | COVER CROP | CROP PRODUCTION | CROPS | DECOMPOSITION | MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES | MOISTURE DETERMINATION | NITROGEN FIXATION | NO-TILLAGE SYSTEMS | NUTRIENT CYCLING | NUTRIENTS | PHOSPHORUS | PHOSPHORUS RELEASE | PLANTS [BOTANY] | RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION | SOIL ORGANIC CARBON | SOIL ORGANIC CARBON | SOILS | SOYBEAN | SOYBEAN RESIDUES | SOYBEAN [GLYCINE MAX [L.] MERR.] | ZERO TILLAGE | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Soil and Tillage Research vol.143 (2014), p.59-66Resumen: Cover crops [CC] provide many benefits to soils but their effect on decomposition of previous crop residues and release of nutrients in continuous no-tillage soybean [Glycine max [L.] Merr.] production are little known. Our objective was to quantify CC effects on decomposition and phosphorus [P] release from soybean residue using litterbags. Three CC species [oat, Avena sativa L.; rye, Secale cereal L.; and rye grass, Lolium multiflorum L.] and a no CC control were evaluated. Temperature, moisture content, microbial biomass and microbial activity were measured in the surface 2cm of soil and residues. Cover crops increased soybean residue decomposition slightly both years [8.2 and 6.4 percent]. Phosphorus release from soybean residue did not show any significant differences. Cover crops increased microbial biomass quantity and activity in both soil and residue samples [p less than 0.001, p=0.049 for soil and residue microbial biomass; p=0.060, p=0.003 for soil and residue microbial activity, respectively]. Increased residue decomposition with CC was associated with higher soil and residue microbial biomass and activity, higher near-surface [0-2cm] moisture content [due to shading] and soil organic carbon enrichment by CC. Even though CC increased soybean residue decomposition [233kgha-1], this effect was compensated for by the annual addition of approximately 6500kgha-1 of CC biomass. This study demonstrated another role for CC when calibrating models that simulate the decomposition of residues in no-tillage systems.
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Cover crops [CC] provide many benefits to soils but their effect on decomposition of previous crop residues and release of nutrients in continuous no-tillage soybean [Glycine max [L.] Merr.] production are little known. Our objective was to quantify CC effects on decomposition and phosphorus [P] release from soybean residue using litterbags. Three CC species [oat, Avena sativa L.; rye, Secale cereal L.; and rye grass, Lolium multiflorum L.] and a no CC control were evaluated. Temperature, moisture content, microbial biomass and microbial activity were measured in the surface 2cm of soil and residues. Cover crops increased soybean residue decomposition slightly both years [8.2 and 6.4 percent]. Phosphorus release from soybean residue did not show any significant differences. Cover crops increased microbial biomass quantity and activity in both soil and residue samples [p less than 0.001, p=0.049 for soil and residue microbial biomass; p=0.060, p=0.003 for soil and residue microbial activity, respectively]. Increased residue decomposition with CC was associated with higher soil and residue microbial biomass and activity, higher near-surface [0-2cm] moisture content [due to shading] and soil organic carbon enrichment by CC. Even though CC increased soybean residue decomposition [233kgha-1], this effect was compensated for by the annual addition of approximately 6500kgha-1 of CC biomass. This study demonstrated another role for CC when calibrating models that simulate the decomposition of residues in no-tillage systems.

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