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Genetic improvement of peanut in Argentina between 1948 and 2004 : Links between phenology and grain yield determinants

Por: Haro, Ricardo J.
Colaborador(es): Baldessari, Jorge | Otegui, María Elena.
ISSN: 0378-4290.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): THERMAL TIME | TEMPERATURE EFFECT | SEED WEIGHT | SEED SET | SEED NUMBER | REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR | PHYSIOLOGY | PHENOLOGY | PEANUT | LEGUME | GROWTH RATE | GENETIC ANALYSIS | FERTILITY INDEX | CULTIVAR | CROP YIELD | ARGENTINA | ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L | ARACHIS HYPOGAEA | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Field Crops Research vol.174 (2015), p.12-19Resumen: In the mid 1970s, there was a shift in peanut cultivars used in Argentina, from cultivars with erect growth habit [CEGH] to those with procumbent growth habit [CPGH], which improved seed yield, but also lengthened growth cycle. However, there is no information on [i] the partitioning of thermal time [TT] requirements between vegetative and reproductive phases, as well as between reproductive sub-phases representative of the seed set and seed-filling periods, and [ii] the effect of developmental changes on growth traits. Field experiments were performed to compute TT, grain yield determinants [i.e., seed number and seed weight], and other related physiological traits. Eight cultivars released between 1948 and 2004 were evaluated. The introduction of CPGH produced a lengthening [31 percent] of peanut growth cycle [S-R8], which was more pronounced for the reproductive phase [plus 39 percent for R1-R8] than for the vegetative phase [plus 17 percent for S-R1]. This trend held for pod-set [R3-R6.5: plus 37 percent] and seed filling [R5-R8: plus 57 percent] sub-phases. It also held [CPGH greater than CEGH] for the rate of flower production [plus 80 percent], total flower number [plus 36 percent] and number of pods per plant [plus 117 percent], and consequently for the fertility index [plus 56 percent]. The enhanced seed number of CPGH was related to [r2=0.55, P less than 0.001] the variation in crop growth rate during the seed set period [CGR R3-R6.5], but not to the duration of this period. Variations in CGR R3-R6.5 were partially explained by differences in cumulative IPAR, which were linked to the duration of the R3-R6.5 period as well as to maximum light interception fraction. These trends may have management as well as breeding origins. Introduction of the procumbent habit enhanced seed weight [CPGH greater than CEGH] and seed-filling duration markedly, but had no effect on seed-filling rate. Seed weight, however, was positively related to this rate [P less than 0.01] and exhibited a negative trend in response to the duration of the period. Lack of source limitations on seed filling suggest that future breeding efforts should focus on the increase of seed numbers and the reduction of seed filling duration.
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In the mid 1970s, there was a shift in peanut cultivars used in Argentina, from cultivars with erect growth habit [CEGH] to those with procumbent growth habit [CPGH], which improved seed yield, but also lengthened growth cycle. However, there is no information on [i] the partitioning of thermal time [TT] requirements between vegetative and reproductive phases, as well as between reproductive sub-phases representative of the seed set and seed-filling periods, and [ii] the effect of developmental changes on growth traits. Field experiments were performed to compute TT, grain yield determinants [i.e., seed number and seed weight], and other related physiological traits. Eight cultivars released between 1948 and 2004 were evaluated. The introduction of CPGH produced a lengthening [31 percent] of peanut growth cycle [S-R8], which was more pronounced for the reproductive phase [plus 39 percent for R1-R8] than for the vegetative phase [plus 17 percent for S-R1]. This trend held for pod-set [R3-R6.5: plus 37 percent] and seed filling [R5-R8: plus 57 percent] sub-phases. It also held [CPGH greater than CEGH] for the rate of flower production [plus 80 percent], total flower number [plus 36 percent] and number of pods per plant [plus 117 percent], and consequently for the fertility index [plus 56 percent]. The enhanced seed number of CPGH was related to [r2=0.55, P less than 0.001] the variation in crop growth rate during the seed set period [CGR R3-R6.5], but not to the duration of this period. Variations in CGR R3-R6.5 were partially explained by differences in cumulative IPAR, which were linked to the duration of the R3-R6.5 period as well as to maximum light interception fraction. These trends may have management as well as breeding origins. Introduction of the procumbent habit enhanced seed weight [CPGH greater than CEGH] and seed-filling duration markedly, but had no effect on seed-filling rate. Seed weight, however, was positively related to this rate [P less than 0.01] and exhibited a negative trend in response to the duration of the period. Lack of source limitations on seed filling suggest that future breeding efforts should focus on the increase of seed numbers and the reduction of seed filling duration.

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