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Multiple abiotic stresses on maize grain yield determination : additive vs multiplicative effects

Por: Rossini, María de los Angeles.
Colaborador(es): Maddonni, Gustavo Angel | Otegui, María Elena.
ISSN: 0378-4290.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): MAIZE | MULTIPLE ABIOTIC STRESSES | REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENTK | KERNEL NUMBER | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR. En: Field Crops Research vol.198 (2016), p.280-289, tbls., grafs.Resumen: Interactions between nitrogen [Ns] and water stress [Ws] effects on annual crops productivity have beenwidely investigated in Mediterranean-type regions, but not in the humid temperate ones as the central Pampas of Argentina, where early-sown maize crops are usually exposed to severe yield penalties dueto the mentioned stresses. Additionally, the recommendation of increasing plant populations promotedby seed companies may push crops to high density stress [HDs], which has usually a multiplicative [i.e.less intensive] and not an additive [i.e. more intensive] effect when combined with other constraints. In current research we re-examined multiple stress effects [HDs, Ns, Ws and the interaction of HDswith either Ns or Ws] on the determinants of grain yield of two maize hybrids, and used relative plantbiomass [SI igual 1 - stress/reference] as an integrative seasonal index for describing their intensities. Fieldexperiments included two maize hybrids of contrasting tolerance to stress [high for AX820 and low forAX877], grown under different combinations of stand densities [9 and 12 plants m-2] and N offer [0 and200 kg N ha-1] or water regime [well-watered and water deficit]. The SI of combined stresses was alwayslarger than the SI of any individual stress. For the tolerant hybrid, effects of combined abiotic stresseson SI were always multiplicative, whereas for the intolerant one the response intensified [i.e., turnedadditive or even synergic] under Ws × HDs. For both hybrids, a single model described the sensitivityof certain traits [number of complete and total florets, number of exposed silks] to the wide range ofevaluated SIs, whereas independent models were necessary to accommodate the variation observed inthe anthesis-silking interval associated with Ws and Ns. The second pattern was also observed in thecase of kernel number per plant and plant grain yield of the intolerant but not of the tolerant hybrid. The former was more sensitive to Ws than the latter. Our results confirm a different sensitivity of theanalyzed traits according to the origin of stress and the genotypic variability in these responses.
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Interactions between nitrogen [Ns] and water stress [Ws] effects on annual crops productivity have beenwidely investigated in Mediterranean-type regions, but not in the humid temperate ones as the central Pampas of Argentina, where early-sown maize crops are usually exposed to severe yield penalties dueto the mentioned stresses. Additionally, the recommendation of increasing plant populations promotedby seed companies may push crops to high density stress [HDs], which has usually a multiplicative [i.e.less intensive] and not an additive [i.e. more intensive] effect when combined with other constraints. In current research we re-examined multiple stress effects [HDs, Ns, Ws and the interaction of HDswith either Ns or Ws] on the determinants of grain yield of two maize hybrids, and used relative plantbiomass [SI igual 1 - stress/reference] as an integrative seasonal index for describing their intensities. Fieldexperiments included two maize hybrids of contrasting tolerance to stress [high for AX820 and low forAX877], grown under different combinations of stand densities [9 and 12 plants m-2] and N offer [0 and200 kg N ha-1] or water regime [well-watered and water deficit]. The SI of combined stresses was alwayslarger than the SI of any individual stress. For the tolerant hybrid, effects of combined abiotic stresseson SI were always multiplicative, whereas for the intolerant one the response intensified [i.e., turnedadditive or even synergic] under Ws × HDs. For both hybrids, a single model described the sensitivityof certain traits [number of complete and total florets, number of exposed silks] to the wide range ofevaluated SIs, whereas independent models were necessary to accommodate the variation observed inthe anthesis-silking interval associated with Ws and Ns. The second pattern was also observed in thecase of kernel number per plant and plant grain yield of the intolerant but not of the tolerant hybrid. The former was more sensitive to Ws than the latter. Our results confirm a different sensitivity of theanalyzed traits according to the origin of stress and the genotypic variability in these responses.

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