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Urbanization homogenizes the interactions of plant - frugivore bird networks

Colaborador(es): Schneiberg, Israel. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação. Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Laboratório de Interações and Biologia Reprodutiva. . Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil | Boscolo, Danilo. Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de filosofia, ciências e letras de Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP-USP). Departamento de Biologia. Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil | Devoto, Mariano. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. Cátedra de Botánica General. Buenos Aires. Argentina. CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Marcilio Silva, Vinicius. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação. Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal. .Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil | Dalmaso, Cilmar Antônio. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Jardim Botânico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Florestais. Curitiba, Brazil | Ribeiro, John Wesley. Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Departamento de Ecologia. Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC). Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil | Ribeiro, Milton Cezar. Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Departamento de Ecologia. Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC). Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil | Camargo Guaraldo, André de. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação. Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil | Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão. Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Departamento de Ecologia. Laboratório de Ecologia Espacial e Conservação (LEEC). Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil | Galarda Varassin, Isabela. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação. Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Centro Politécnico. Laboratório de Interações and Biologia Reprodutiva. . Jardim das Américas, Curitiba, Brazil.
ISSN: 1083-8155.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY | MUTUALISTIC NETWORK | URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Urban Ecosystems vol.23 (2020), p.457–470, grafs., tbls., mapasResumen: Anthropogenic activities are the main cause of habitat loss and fragmentation, which directly affects biodiversity. Disruption in landscape connectivity among populations may affect complex interactions between species and ecosystem functions, such as pollination and seed dispersal, and ultimately result in secondary extinctions. Urbanization, one of the most intense forms of landscapes changes, has been reported to negatively affect bird and plant diversity. Still, little is known about the effects of urban landscapes on interaction networks. We investigated the relationship between urban landscape structure and plant frugivore networks at different spatial scales. Coupling interaction data from urban areas and a model selection approach, we evaluated which landscape factors best explained the variation in urban networks properties. Our results indicate that urbanization decreases bird richness,mainly through the loss of habitat specialist species,which results in networks being composedmainly of birds well adapted to urban dwelling. We found that interaction evenness, a measure of homogeneity of interaction distribution between species, increases with urbanization. This is due to the strong dominance that generalist birds had in network composition because they foraged on all available fruits, including exotic plants. The ensuing homogenization of interactions can reduce the resilience of networks and affect the efficiency of ecosystems functions. Thus, urbanization plans should consider the proportion and distribution of green areas within cities, coupling human and ecosystem wellbeing.
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Anthropogenic activities are the main cause of habitat loss and fragmentation, which directly affects biodiversity. Disruption in landscape connectivity among populations may affect complex interactions between species and ecosystem functions, such as pollination and seed dispersal, and ultimately result in secondary extinctions. Urbanization, one of the most intense forms of landscapes changes, has been reported to negatively affect bird and plant diversity. Still, little is known about the effects of urban landscapes on interaction networks. We investigated the relationship between urban landscape structure and plant frugivore networks at different spatial scales. Coupling interaction data from urban areas and a model selection approach, we evaluated which landscape factors best explained the variation in urban networks properties. Our results indicate that urbanization decreases bird richness,mainly through the loss of habitat specialist species,which results in networks being composedmainly of birds well adapted to urban dwelling. We found that interaction evenness, a measure of homogeneity of interaction distribution between species, increases with urbanization. This is due to the strong dominance that generalist birds had in network composition because they foraged on all available fruits, including exotic plants. The ensuing homogenization of interactions can reduce the resilience of networks and affect the efficiency of ecosystems functions. Thus, urbanization plans should consider the proportion and distribution of green areas within cities, coupling human and ecosystem wellbeing.

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