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Structure and development of anthers and connective glands in two species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae) : are heteromorphic anthers related to division of labour?

Colaborador(es): Avalos, Adan Alberto. CONICET. Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste (IBONE-UNNE-CONICET). Corrientes, Argentina. CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Torretta, Juan Pablo. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Agronomía. Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambiente. Cátedra de Botánica General. Buenos Aires, Argentina. CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina | Lattar, Elsa Clorinda. CONICET. Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste (IBONE-UNNE-CONICET). Corrientes, Argentina. Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA-UNNE). Cátedra de Morfología de Plantas Vasculares. Corrientes, Argentina | Ferrucci, María Silvia. CONICET. Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste (IBONE-UNNE-CONICET). Corrientes, Argentina. CONICET. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ISSN: 1615-6102.Tipo de material: Artículos y capítulos. Recurso electrónico.Tema(s): HETERANTHERY | DIVISION OF LABOUR | ANTHER STRUCTURE | CONNECTIVE GLANDS | STIGMAPHYLLON | NEOTROPICAL MALPIGHIACEAE | Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea | LINK AL EDITOR En: Protoplasma : an International Journal of Cell Biology vol.257 (2020), p.1165–1181, tbls., grafs., fot., il.Resumen: Heteranthery has been largely associated with a division of labour between anthers. Most species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae) present heteromorphic anthers and glandular connectives of different development; yet, the functional meaning of this condition has never been explored in the genus. The aims of this study were to provide a comparative description of the structure and development of anthers and their connective glands in S. bonariense and S. jatrophifolium and to assess the existence of division of functions. Natural populations were selected to collect flowers at different stages. Anthers were subjected to morpho-anatomical, histochemical and pollen viability studies. For both species, abundance of pollen grains and size of anther and their connective glands were estimated. Three types of stamens are recognized: stamen with small, intermediate and large anthers. Anthers of both species exhibit a similar glandular tissue in the connective, and the histochemical analysis revealed that it produce a mucilagous secretion. The pattern of anther wall development, stainability and release of pollen grains was identical among anther types. For both species, we observed a positive relationship between anther size and abundance of pollen grains, but an inverse relationship between area of anthers and size (area and thickness) of connective glands in small anthers vs. intermediate and large ones. Our results evidence a specialization of anthers related to division of labour between heteromorphic stamens in two species of Stigmaphyllon. Thus, one set of anthers produces large amount of pollen grains for pollination and another sets large quantities of mucilage, which would improve pollen transport (better adherence to pollinator body and dampness maintenance). Nevertheless, heteranthery in both Stigmaphyllon species would represent a transitional state towards the division of labour rather than a stable state.
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Heteranthery has been largely associated with a division of labour between anthers. Most species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae) present heteromorphic anthers and glandular connectives of different development; yet, the functional meaning of this condition has never been explored in the genus. The aims of this study were to provide a comparative description of the structure and development of anthers and their connective glands in S. bonariense and S. jatrophifolium and to assess the existence of division of functions. Natural populations were selected to collect flowers at different stages. Anthers were subjected to morpho-anatomical, histochemical and pollen viability studies. For both species, abundance of pollen grains and size of anther and their connective glands were estimated. Three types of stamens are recognized: stamen with small, intermediate and large anthers. Anthers of both species exhibit a similar glandular tissue in the connective, and the histochemical analysis revealed that it produce a mucilagous secretion. The pattern of anther wall development, stainability and release of pollen grains was identical among anther types. For both species, we observed a positive relationship between anther size and abundance of pollen grains, but an inverse relationship between area of anthers and size (area and thickness) of connective glands in small anthers vs. intermediate and large ones. Our results evidence a specialization of anthers related to division of labour between heteromorphic stamens in two species of Stigmaphyllon. Thus, one set of anthers produces large amount of pollen grains for pollination and another sets large quantities of mucilage, which would improve pollen transport (better adherence to pollinator body and dampness maintenance). Nevertheless, heteranthery in both Stigmaphyllon species would represent a transitional state towards the division of labour rather than a stable state.

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